- Category: Education
Arabic language is one of the core courses offered in almost every private full time Islamic schools in S.Africa. It is the language in which the Qur'an is written, and, therefore, a certain familiarity with Arabic is necessary for all students in Islamic schools.
Islamic schools form a permanent reservoir of Arabic language instruction in S.Africa. Long after current grants and financial support for Arabic language have dried up and disappeared, Islamic schools will continue to teach it. It is also the heritage language of many students. Right from its very inception, an Islamic school must grapple with a difficult but fundamental question - why are we teaching Arabic?
- Do we want to limit Arabic to its role as a critical tool in the study of Islam?
- Do we want to teach Arabic as a fully developed second/foreign language?
This decision might seem fairly straightforward for some communities, especially if they intend to replicate the "traditional" immigrant overseas experience, i.e., "My kids can learn to recite the Qur'an the way I did." But a school needs to take a much deeper look at the real situation their children will face here in S.Africa. For example, universities prefer students who have taken a language in high school. It makes good sense, therefore, for the school to offer Arabic as a course that will fulfill the language requirement. However, the "traditional" way of teaching Arabic is deeply inadequate to meet the standards of a language course. So what should a school do?
That can be answered only by each school, but the information below can help a school make an informed decision.
- Learn the difference between Qur'anic Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic.
- Why might a school prefer to offer both Qur'anic Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic?
- What are the Arabic Standards for K-12?
Click here to go to the National Capital Language Resource Center website:http://www.arabick12.org/index.html
- Qur'anic Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic - How Are They Different?
- Qur'anic Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic - Making the Best Choice for Our Children
- Category: Education
The question of what makes a great teacher has been around for a long time. It’s an enquiry that poses many problems because there’s simply no set recipe for success, and different approaches work for different professionals and students.
The Sutton Trust has published a report that reviews the research into effective teaching, finding that popular practices, such as lavishing praise on students or allowing them to discover key things for themselves, actually have no grounding in research.
The author of the report, professor Robert Coe from Durham University, says this is a “starter kit” for thinking about what makes good teaching. So, what does the report recommend? Here are 10 salient points to take away:
1. Know your subject
The report, which looked at more than 200 pieces of research, found that there were six main elements to great teaching and one of the most important ones was subject knowledge. It may seem obvious, but the report found that the best teachers have a deep knowledge of their subject, and if that falls below a certain point it has a “significant impact” on students’ learning. Targeted help for teachers, giving them an understanding of particular areas where their knowledge is weak, could be effective.
2. Praise can do more harm than good
The wrong kind of praise can be harmful for students, the report found. A number of studies conducted by education experts, including Carol Dweck professor of psychology at Stanford University and Auckland University professors John Hattie and Helen Timperley, have observed this.
Deborah Stipek, the dean of the Stanford Graduate School of Education, said that praise is meant to be encouraging but it can actually “convey a teacher’s low expectations”. Stipek said that if a pupil’s failure was met with sympathy rather than anger then they were more likely to think they had done badly due to a lack of ability.
The report adds the caveat that the findings are open to interpretation, however, as teachers can do things well or badly, and some methods are not appropriate in all circumstances.
3. Instruction matters
The quality of teaching has a big impact on the achievement of students’ from poorer backgrounds, and effective questioning and assessment are at the heart of great teaching. This involves giving enough time for children to practise new skills and introducing learning progressively. Defining effective teaching isn’t easy, the report conceded, but research always returns to the fact that student progress is the yardstick by which teacher quality should be assessed.
4. Teacher beliefs count
The reasons why teachers do certain things in the classroom and what they hope to achieve has an effect on student progress. Mike Askew, the author of Effective Teachers of Numeracy, found that beliefs about the nature of maths and what it means to understand it, along with teachers’ ideas about how children learn and their role in that process, was an important factor in how effective they were.
Evidence to support this is not conclusive, however. A study by professor Steve Higgins of Durham University and the University of Newcastle upon Tyne’s David Moseley about teacher beliefs in ICT did not find a convincing relationships between beliefs and pupil progress.
5. Think about teacher-student relationships
This may also seem obvious, but the interactions teachers have with students has a big impact on learning – as well as the “classroom climate”. The report said that it was important to create a classroom environment that was “constantly demanding more” while affirming students’ self-worth. A student’s success should be atributed to effort rather than ability.
6. Manage behaviour
Interestingly, this wasn’t as significant as subject knowledge and classroom instruction as a factor contributing to teacher success. But classroom management – including how well a teacher makes use of lesson time, coordinates classroom resources and manages the behaviour of students – was noted as important.
7. There’s no evidence that setting works
Putting students in groups depending on their ability makes little difference to their learning. Although setting can in theory let teachers work at a pace that suits all pupils and tailor content, it can also create an exaggerated sense of all pupils being alike in the teacher’s mind. This can result in teachers not accomodating to the various different needs within one group and in some instances going too fast with high-ability groups and too slow with low ones.
8. Don’t worry about learning styles
A survey showed that more than 90% of teachers think individuals learn better when they get information in their preferred learning style. But despite the popularity of this approach psychological evidence shows that there is no evidence this actually works. You can read more about the evidence on learning styles here.
9. Learning should be hard at first
One finding that may surprise you is that approaches that appear to make learning harder in the short term can actually lead to students retaining more information in the long term. Elizabeth Ligon Bjork, professor at the University of Michigan and Robert Bjork, professor at the University of California, said that varying the type of tasks you ask pupils to do improves retention even though it makes learning harder initially.
10. Build relationships with colleagues and parents
A teacher’s professional behaviour, including supporting colleagues and talking with parents, also had a moderate impact on students’ learning. The report said that there may not be a direct link with these practices and student achievement, but to capture a broad definition of good teaching they should be included.
Source: theguradian.com by Sarah Marsh
- Category: Education
- Start a lesson plan notebook or journal. Some days your lessons will surpass your expectations; other days, you‘ll wonder what went wrong. Create a notebook with copies of your lesson plans and two sets of worksheets. Keep notes on what works and what doesn’t, writing directly on the lesson plan or one copy of the worksheet. When you go back to revise or recreate lessons for the next school year, you will have a good record of what worked—and what you can build on.
- Don’t sell your class short. Avoid telling your class “This is easy,” “This will be fun,” “This shouldn’t be too hard,” or “This is going to be tough.” If students succeed at a task you’ve labeled “easy,” the accomplishment seems less significant. If they do not, they may feel worse than they otherwise would. What is easy for one student is difficult for the next, so keep all your students on their toes, and celebrate their accomplishments.
- Decorate appropriately. Take a good look at your classroom décor. What messages does it send to students? Does it reflect what you are trying to accomplish? Are your classroom rules prominently displayed? Do your students know where to look for examples of good work? Your classroom décor can say a lot about your personality as a teacher and what you are there to accomplish; don’t ignore it!
- Be consistent. Students tend to remember your rules better when they stay the same and are enforced equally and consistently.
- Create problem solvers. Start each class with a set of questions and riddles that promote logical thinking. Allow students to work in small groups, and emphasize that they should discuss solution strategies and how they got their answers. This activity shows students that your classroom is a place where communication and collaboration is encouraged.
- Who’s doing the math? Be mindful of who is actually doing the mathematics in the classroom. The students should be doing their share of the thinking, explaining, and reasoning. Give students a chance to struggle and wrestle with some math every day! Suggesting a solution strategy too quickly doesn’t give students a chance to solve problems.
- Talk with colleagues. Try to meet weekly with a group of fellow teachers to discuss teaching strategies, share classroom-management techniques, and brainstorm ways to offer more opportunities for students. Consider preparing a monthly math department newsletter for parents.
- Don't jump to conclusions. Regardless of past experiences, try to give each student a clean slate to work from. If you are particularly worried about a certain student, try giving him or her responsibilities from the start. Have the student hand out papers, erase the chalkboard, or collect papers from classmates.
- Use questions. Make your classroom a safe place to ask and answer questions. Try using students’ questions to drive your lesson, with students working to answer each others’ questions.
- Category: Education
How much? How often? How relevant?
- Only assign what’s necessary to augment instruction. If you can get sufficient information by assigning only five problems, then don’t assign fifty.
- Focus on practice and review. Give students a chance to try new material, further practice skills they have recently learned, and review something they already know.
- Take students’ age into consideration when determining the amount of homework to assign. Recommendations from “Helping Your Students With Homework: A Guide for Teachers,” published by the U.S. Department of Education, lists the following:
- Grades 1-3: up to 20 minutes a night
- Grades 4-6: 20-40 minutes a night
- Grades 7-9: up to 2 hours a night
- Grades 10-12: 1½- 2½ hours per night
Remember, this is a cumulative amount. If you are only one of five teachers assigning homework, you should adjust accordingly.
- Share a list of homework rules before handing out the first assignment. A written explanation of expectations will increase the likelihood that assignments are completed. Let students know that homework is important, and that not doing an assignment will have consequences, which may include lower grades.
- Let students know ahead of time when homework will be assigned. Some teachers always assign homework on specific nights—every Tuesday and Thursday, for example. This lets students and parents know when to expect homework.
- Designate a Homework Collector. Assign a student to gather the papers at the start of class while you take roll or attend to other administrative tasks.
- Have a weekly prize drawing. Students get a ticket for each homework assignment they complete, and at the end of the week, a winner is randomly chosen. (Plus, this activity can serve as the motivation for a probability lesson!)
- Employ a “While You Were Out” form for students to fill out indicating any class periods they missed. (Leave blank copies of this form in a location accessible to students.) When students return these forms, fill out the form indicating the class work, homework, or tests that students missed, and return the forms to students. When students complete the make-up work, they should attach the form. Having a system for missed work will help you with organization, and it will reduce the number of last-minute assignments turned in at report-card time.
- Give constructive feedback. Students are more apt to complete assignments and advance their learning when they get consistent and constructive feedback. Make an effort to provide written comments on student work that lets them know what they did well and what they need to improve.
- Category: Education
(By Charles Rex Arbogast/ AP)
While an education reform policy debate becomes ever more furious around the country, teachers still have to teach every day. Here, from edutopia.org, are 25 great tips to help teachers keep their classrooms in control. The most brilliant teacher can’t help kids learn if he/she can’t manage the classroom.
Whether you’re a new or experienced teacher, strategies for effective classroom management are vital to keeping your class running smoothly and creating a positive learning environment. In this guide you’ll find the 25 best tips for classroom management contributed by the educators of Edutopia’s community.
Tip: Pick your rules wisely. More rules doesn’t always equate to better behavior.
“An environment that is dictated by too many rules is rigid, cold and likely to create an atmosphere of rebellion…Rules and routines are an excellent way to communicate your behavioral expectations, but not the way to completely ‘manage’ your classroom.” — Tracey Garrett, professor of teacher education, New Jersey
TAKE IT OUTSIDE
Tip: Avoid confronting misbehaving students in front of their classmates.
“Whenever I had confrontations in front of their peers, it often escalated….I began to ask the student to step out of the classroom to talk to me. I usually remained calm and reasoned, but firm in what behaviors I would and wouldn’t accept. 90% of the time, we’d return to the classroom, no one would lose face, and the situation would be resolved.” — Gary Latman, retired high school English teacher, Chicago
CHOOSE YOUR BATTLES
Tip: Don’t waste your energy reprimanding every small misbehavior.
“Pick your battles when it comes to student behavior issues…we waste precious energy and create more distraction when we jump on every single thing students do. Decide what your bottom line issues are…then be prepared to enforce them consistently every day of the year.” — Renee/TeachMoore, English teacher, Mississippi
Tip: Keep calm and carry on.
“When every other element is out of your control, you can still manage your reaction.” —Instructional Specialist, AutismClassroom.com
“Try not to yell. Once you yell, they have won. I get a much better response from students when I simply count backwards or just look at them.” — Margie, 3rd grade teacher, Rochester, N.Y.
Tip: Always have a plan in mind for handling misbehavior.
“Always having a plan. From small to large infractions, being consistent with your plan is imperative. The students will always want to test you, but if your reaction is always the same, the game is over quickly.” — Jo Ann Brass
CONNECT AND RECONNECT
Tip: Greet your students at the door.
“Greet every child at the door first thing in the morning or at the beginning of class to help reconnect and set the tone for your day or class.” —Janofmi, MEA National Board candidate support provider, Michigan
WEAR THEIR SHOES
Tip: Try to look at things from your students’ perspective and be empathetic.
“I strongly, firmly believe that if teachers do not wear our students’ shoes when necessary, we are not doing our job well. This is especially true when dealing with teenagers…we have to be extremely careful about what we say and how we say what we need to.” —Roselink, ESL Teacher, Madrid, Spain
GET TO KNOW THEM
Tip: Build rapport with your students and show them you care.
“Spend time participating in their extracurricular activities, attend sporting events, concerts, etc. to support them. [This] has definitely paid off because if I need to have a talk with a student in terms of their academics or behavior, I am able to accomplish so much more because I have developed a trusting and honest relationship with them.” — Emily
SLAY THE DRAGON
Tip: Confront issues head-on to find a solution.
“I noticed that students that are difficult are usually masking something else. I find out what it is by ‘Slaying the dragon.’ I try to become a friend to the student. I go to their games. Talk to them at lunch etc. I notice how they react to the learning process. If a child has difficulty reading or math we privately work on those issues before or after school.” — Tanya Shank
NO HARD FEELINGS
Tip: Don’t take it personally when a student lashes out. Treat each day as an opportunity to start fresh.
“I started my teaching career in an alternative school in a rough part of town. My mentor told me, ‘Don’t take it personally. The students want you to hurt as much as they are hurting.’ I have never forgotten that and each day, the slate is wiped clean and I harbor no grudges towards my students.” — Lisa Brown
Tip: Don’t be afraid to reach out to parents.
“They really are our allies. For every two phone calls that you have to make about a problem that you are dealing with in class, make one positive one to a parent just to say something nice about their child.” — Elizabeth Ramos, high school teacher, Chatsworth, Calif.
Tip: Ask students questions to help make them feel comfortable.
“…be friendly with students and make them comfortable. Communication is really very important to make them feel free with you. Engage them through discussions and asking them several questions, as this will boost up their confidence and interest level.” — Jessica, math teacher and tutor at 1to1tutor.org
Tip: Make your expectations clear from the get-go.
“Take the time to teach expectations, and reteach them as needed. This may feel like you are wasting time that could be spent on curriculum, but when you add up the time it would take to do a menial task throughout your semester or year, you are actually adding time spent on instruction.” — Carey Rebecca, high school A.P English teacher
Tip: Embrace the “Golden Rule” in your class(es).
“I only have one rule: Treat me with the same respect and dignity that you want me to treat you. I always remind them when something is not right: How would you like it if I did that to you? This diffuses so many situations and the other children also look to the offender and ask the same question.” — Lorraine
CONSISTENCY IS KEY
Tip: Be consistent in expectations and discipline.
“Consistent execution of the rules helps to maintain the respect fostered in the classroom. Once these rules are in place, I feel the most vital piece of classroom management is developing relationships of trust and equality. If this is the ultimate goal of a student-teacher relationship, real learning can take place.” — Jennifer Hendren
Tip: Learn to manage transitions smoothly to limit disruption.
“…learn how to manage transitions! Moving from the restroom back to the classroom, from a group discussion to independent work time, from reading to math…Each transition has to be broken down into steps and explicitly taught and monitored.” — Tom Stacho, trainer/consultant at BehaviorInSchools.com
SWITCH IT UP
Tip: Don’t get stuck in a singular mode of teaching.
“Frequently vary the delivery of your instruction. Often times we as teachers get caught up in doing things one way. We are as much creatures of habit as anyone. When things become boring and too predictable, discipline problems are undoubtedly going to become an issue.” — Joseph D
KEEP ‘EM BUSY
Tip: Get students engaged and involved in the lesson to prevent disruptions.
“If you have an engaging lesson, students are less likely to misbehave…There were times when my lessons were more listening to me talk, and other times when my lessons were full-blown hands-on. There were much fewer issues with student behavior when the students were so engaged!” — Simon
TIGHTEN IT UP
Tip: Tighten up time management and stay organized.
“…a lot of misbehavior in my class was the result of me neglecting key aspects of classroom management such as organization and time management. Once I tightened things up in those areas, teaching and learning time increased dramatically. And best of all, classroom culture improved too.” — David Ginsburg, instructional and leadership coach, Philadelphia
Tip: Be transparent in your objectives.
“To catch student attention, motivate them, and keep them focused the best practice is transparency! What are we learning today? Why are we learning that? What will we be able to do at the end of the lesson? How it will help you to improve?” — Clemence Rincé-Bonsergent, 6-12 French teacher, Telangana, India
Tip: Incentivize students to work together using rewards.
“…we quietly observe throughout the day adding & removing tally marks on the whiteboard for behavior by tables. The table with the most tally marks at the end of the week wins a prize. We take away tally marks from tables when they are too chatty or acting inappropriately. This helps a group effort and lets the students work as a team for positive behavior. They are accountable to each other, too.” — Kimberly R., 1st grade teacher, Georgia
LEAN ON ME
Tip: Don’t be afraid to ask others for help!
“…the biggest mistake [she] saw teachers make was not asking for help, or asking questions. They would struggle alone, not wanting to look like they didn’t know what they were doing…You can’t figure it out alone, and you need to find mentors and peers to help you along the way.” — Alice Mercer, elementary computer lab teacher, Sacramento, Calif.
MOOD IS CONTAGIOUS
Tip: Leave your baggage at the door.
“I believe 100% that the teacher’s attitude rubs off on their students each day. If you come into the classroom in the morning crabby…your students are going to pick up on it right away. As an educator, if we show our students we don’t want to be at school, then they lose interest a lot faster than they would on a day that we are excited and happy about being there.” — Lindsay, 1st grade teacher
SHOW THAT YOU CARE
Tip: Show your students that you care about their success.
“[This] has stuck with me for years: ‘They need to know that you care before they care what you know.’ Building a positive connection with kids and taking responsibility for how we choose to act in the classroom (bored, tired, engaged, excited, etc.) goes a long way in determining how successful (and enjoyable) the experience is.” — Bob Sullo, author and educational consultant, Sandwich, Mass.